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Kabam (formerly Watercooler, Inc.) is an interactive entertainment company founded in 2006 and headquartered in Vancouver, BC. with offices in San Francisco, CA and Austin, Texas. The company creates, develops and publishes massively multiplayer social games (MMSG’s) such as Marvel: Contest of Champions for mobile devices. Before expanding into gaming, Kabam established itself as a social applications developer with entertainment and sports communities totaling more than 60 million users. Kabam markets freemium games for mobile devices, and social networking services,. The company's previous investors included Alibaba, Canaan Partners, Google, MGM, Intel, Pinnacle Ventures, Redpoint Ventures, Warner Bros. and others.
The company has focused on developing "real games," or games with immersive gameplay mechanics akin to more traditional MMOs with an emphasis on the spending and gambling of virtual currency. In late 2009, Kabam launched Kingdoms of Camelot, one of the first successful strategy games on Facebook, but in June 2010, the number of players began constantly shrinking.
As of April 2015, Kabam announced a shift in its focus to developing AAA mobile games. In July 2015, Kabam announced that Marvel Contest of Champions hit $100 million in gross revenue in seven months, the fastest of any game in Kabam history (The Hobbit was next fastest at 13 months).
Kabam was founded in 2006 as Watercooler by Kevin Chou, Michael Li, Holly Liu, and Wayne Chan, the company started off focused on building community apps for sports and entertainment fans, amassing more than 25 million users on Facebook and other social networks. In October 2009 Watercooler, secured $5.5 million in Series B funding from Betfair, the world’s largest Internet betting exchange, and Canaan Partners, which participated in the company’s Series A funding in 2007. On November 2, 2009 Watercooler, launched Kingdoms of Camelot on Facebook.
On August 3, 2010, Watercooler changed its name to Kabam.
In August 2012, Wayne Chan, one of Kabam's co-founders, left the company. Then on September 19, 2012, CEO Kevin Chou announced that Kabam was considering an IPO. A secondary stock sale was agreed at the end of 2013 which valued the company at $700 million, it was also announced at this time that four of its games – led by Kingdoms of Camelot – grossed more than $100 million, with $360 million in revenues for 2013.
In June 2014, Kabam hired former EA Mobile VP Aaron Loeb as Senior Vice President of its North American Studios (San Francisco and Vancouver), while at EA Mobile he worked on The Simpsons: Tapped Out and Monopoly Slots, Kabam hoped he would provide a link to Hollywood Studios. Also in June, Kabam shut down servers for The Hobbit: Armies of the Third Age.
Alibaba announced in July 2014 that it planned to invest $120 million in Kabam, giving the company a $1 billion valuation. This allowed its games to be distributed through Alibaba's apps, including Mobile Taobao and the Laiwang messaging app.
As of April 2015, Kabam is only focused on developing AAA mobile games. As a result, a number of Kabam games were shut down, older Kabam games transferred to other companies and Kabam support for third-party games decreased.
In September 2015, Kabam, Disney Interactive, Lucasfilm launch Star Wars: Uprising In September 2015, Nick Earl, president of worldwide studios, resigned. Mike Verdu was promoted to president of Kabam Studios and chief creative officer in charge of the publisher’s game design and game quality. Aaron Loeb was promoted to president of Kabam Studios and live services in charge of service quality.
On January 7, 2016, Kabam announced it had sold its legacy games and third party-published games to Chinese publisher GAEA Mobile. As the downsizing in April 2015, Kabam shut down a number of older games that were not transferred.
On February 22, 2016, Kabam laid off 8 percent of its company workforce. Kevin Chou, Kabam's chief executive, said in an exclusive interview with GamesBeat that the company will focus on free-to-play massively multiplayer mobile games such as its current hits, Marvel: Contest of Champions and Star Wars: Uprising. That means Kabam will put less emphasis on single-player games such as Fast & Furious.
On June 23, 2016, Kabam announced that they would be selling Realm of the Mad God to DECA Games.
In July 2016, Kabam announces that Marvel Contest of Champions hit $100 million in gross revenue in seven months, the fastest of any game in Kabam history (The Hobbit was next fastest at 13 months). In November 2016, Kabam appoints Jeff Howell to the newly created position, Chief Technology Officer.
In June 2016, Kabam partners with Lightstorm Entertainment and 20th Century Fox to Develop Groundbreaking New Avatar Mobile Game
In August 2016, Kabam and Hasbro Team Up to Develop Transformers Mobile Game
In October 2016, Kabam Vancouver moves to a new location TechVibes
|Date of Purchase||Name of Company||Key Targets||References|
|October 22, 2010||WonderHill||Dragons of Atlantis & Aquarium Life|||
|December 20, 2011||Gravity Bear||Battle Punks|||
|June 19, 2012||Wild Shadow Studios||Realm of the Mad God|||
|January 27, 2012||Fearless Studios||Haden Blackman - creator of Star Wars:The Force Unleashed & Cedrick Collomb - formerly Director of Engineering at LucasArts|||
|December 3, 2013||Balanced Worlds||Bomb Buddies|||
|January 15, 2013||Exploding Barrel Games||Margaritaville|||
|March 10, 2014||Phoenix Age||Underworld Empire and Castle Age|||
|January 12, 2015||Tapzen||Mike Verdu - formerly worked on the Command & Conquer franchise at EA, also used to work for Zynga|||
|January 12, 2015||Magic Pixel Games||Michael Seegers - former EA games developer|||
|May 26, 2016||Superweapon||Dawn of Steel|||
Games and platforms
This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (May 2015)
Games developed or acquired by Kabam
|Title||Platform||Original Developer||Available to Play||Release Date||Shutdown Date||Notes|
|2.||$20K Football Challenge||Watercooler||No||2009/08||2010/10|
|3.||2010 Bracket Challenge||Watercooler||No||2009/10/01||2010/10|
|4.||Kingdoms of Camelot||Watercooler||Yes||2009/11/06||Transferred to RockYou and supported by RockYou as of the beginning of April 2015, though Kabam still hosts the game and Kabam Rewards still apply to the game.|
|8.||SI Fantasy Football||facebook, Web||Kabam||No||2010/08/06||2011/04|
|10.||Dog World||MySpace, facebook||WonderHill||No||2009||2010|
|14.||Dragons of Atlantis||WonderHill||Yes||2010/10/06||Transferred to RockYou and supported by RockYou as of the beginning of April 2015, though Kabam still hosts the game and Kabam Rewards still apply to the game.|
|15.||Battle Punks||Gravity Bear Studio||No||2010/03/02||2012/03||Date is for beta release, server unresponsiveness by March 2012 was not announced and remains unresolved|
|16.||Realm Of The Mad God||Web, Kongregate, Steam||Wild Shadow Studios, Spry Fox||Yes||2010/01/10||2016/06/16||Acquired by Deca Games on 19th June and officially transferred to Deca Games on 23rd of June.|
|17.||Bomb Buddies||Balanced Worlds Studio||No||2012/05/25||2013/06||Server unresponsiveness by June 2013 was not announced and remains unresolved|
|18.||Castle Age||Phoenix Age||Yes||2009/02|
|19.||Castle Age HD||iOS||Phoenix Age||Yes||2011/12/15|
|20.||Underworld Empire||iOS & Android||Phoenix Age||Yes||2013/01/15|
|22.||This Means War||iOS & Android||Magic Pixel Games, TapZen||Yes||2014/06/26|
|24.||Glory of Rome||Kabam||Yes||2010/10/23||Transferred to RockYou and supported by RockYou as of the beginning of April 2015, though Kabam still hosts the game and Kabam Rewards still apply to the game.|
|25.||Global Warfare||facebook, Web||Kabam||No||2011/03/18||2012/11/30|
|26.||Samurai Dynasty||Kabam||No||2011/03/29||2011/11/15||Date is for beta release|
|28.||The Godfather: Five Families||facebook, Kongregate, Web||Kabam||Yes||2011/09/07||Date is for beta release. Transferred to RockYou and supported by RockYou as of the beginning of April 2015, though Kabam still hosts the game and Kabam Rewards still apply to the game.|
|29.||Kingdoms of Camelot: Battle for the North||iOS & Android||Kabam||Yes||2011/11/21|
|30.||Thirst of Night||Web||Kabam||No||2011/12||2013/01/31|
|32.||Mobile Command: Crisis in Europe||iOS||Kabam||No||2012/04/04||2012/10/08||Date for beta release, limited to Canada|
|33.||Arcane Empires||iOS, Android & facebook||Kabam||Yes||2012/06/26||Date is for beta release, limited to Canada|
|36.||Battle Shard||Web||Kabam||No||2012/09/12||2012/12/04||Date is for beta release|
|37.||Kabam Slots||iOS & Android||Kabam||No||2012/09/20||2014|
|38.||The Hobbit: Kingdoms of Middle Earth||iOS & Android||Kabam||Yes||2012/10/16|
|39.||The Hobbit: Armies of the Third Age||facebook, Web||Kabam||No||2012/11/06||2014/06/20|
|40.||Edgeworld Mobile||iOS||Kabam||No||2012/11/06||2013/06/24||Date is for beta release, limited to Canada|
|41.||Legend Four HD||iOS||Kabam||No||2012/12/10||2013|
|43.||Blastron||iOS, Android & facebook||Kabam||No||2013/01/03||2014|
|45.||Dark District||iOS||Kabam||No||2013/03/29||2014/07/21||Date for beta release, limited to Canada|
|46.||Battle Dodgers||iOS, Android||Kabam||Yes||2013/04/06||Published and supported by Galaxy Pest Control. Android version is no longer available.|
|47.||Dragons of Atlantis: Heirs of the Dragon||iOS & Android||Kabam||Yes||2013/04/16||Date is for beta release|
|48.||Fast & Furious 6: The Game||iOS, Android & facebook||Exploding Barrel Games||No||2013/05/15||2015/06/30|
|49.||Imperium: Galactic War||facebook, Web||Kabam||No||2013/05/22||2013/11/04|
|50.||Order of Elements||iOS||Kabam||No||2013/05/31||2013/11/11|
|51.||Galactic War: Legacy||Android||Kabam||No||2013/06/12||2013/07||Loading issues occurred by July 2013|
|52.||Heroes of Camelot||iOS & Android||Kabam||Yes||2013/06/27||Date for beta release|
|53.||Runes of War||iOS & Android||Kabam||Yes||2013/08/26||Date is for beta release|
|54.||Eternal Uprising: End of Days||iOS & Android||Kabam||No||2013/09/23||2014|
|55.||Blast Zone!||iOS||Kabam||No||2013/10/08||2014/08/28||Date is for beta release|
|57.||Wartune: Hall of Heroes||iOS & Android||Kabam||Yes||2014/03/06|
|58.||Angel Alliance||Web||Kabam||Yes||2014/03/11||Date is for beta release|
|59.||Ravenmarch: Empire in Flames||Kabam||No||2014/04/04||2016/02/16||Then supported by 37GAMES by June 1, 2015, but game suffers from long periods of broken facebook login|
|60.||Spirit Lords (Spirit Storm)||iOS & Android||Kabam||Yes||2014/05/07|
|61.||Divine Might||iOS & Android||Kabam||Yes||2014/05/09||Date for beta release|
|62.||Blades of Excalibur||facebook & Web||Kabam||No||2014/06/04||2015/04|
|63.||The Lord of the Rings: Legends of Middle-earth||iOS & Android||Kabam||Yes||2014/09/18||Date for beta release|
|64.||Metal Skies||iOS & Android||Kabam||No||2014/08/05||2015/03/06||Date for beta release|
|65.||Marvel: Contest of Champions||iOS & Android||Kabam||Yes||2014/10/02||Date for beta release|
|66.||The Hunger Games: Panem Rising||iOS & Android||Kabam||No||2014/10/10||2016/03/10||Date is for beta release|
|67.||Creature Academy||iOS & Android||Kabam||No||2014/10/29||2015/04/10||Date for beta release|
|68.||Fast & Furious: Legacy||iOS & Android||Kabam||No||2015/01/23||2017/01/19||Date for beta release|
|69.||Star Wars: Uprising||iOS & Android||Kabam||Yes||2015/07/08||2016/11/17||Date for beta release / Date for planned server shutdown|
|70.||MARVEL United||iOS & Android||Kabam||No||2015/07/09||2016/01/03||Date for beta release, Android beta only available in Denmark and Sweden|
|71.||Transformers: Forged to Fight||iOS & Android||Kabam||Yes||2016/12/05||Date is for beta release|
Games developed by 3rd parties and distributed by Kabam
|Title||Platform||Original Developer||Available to Play||Release Date||Shutdown Date||Notes|
|01.||Ministry of War||Kongregate, Web||SnailGames||Yes||2010/08||2014/02/28|
|02.||Geomon||iOS||EsperCorp, Loki Studios||No||2010/10/01||2013/04/17|
|03.||Nadirim||Web||Digital Reality, Twisted Tribe Ltd.||No||2010/12/08||2013/06/30||Date is for beta release|
|04.||Dungeon Overlord||facebook, Kongregate, Web||Nightowl Games||Yes||2011||2014/02/28|
|05.||Shadowland Online||Web||ZQGame||Yes||2011/08/08||2016/02/16||Date is for beta release|
|06.||Castlot||Web||Power Hosts Technology||Yes||2011/09||2016/01/27||Date is for beta release|
|07.||Book of Heroes||iOS & Android||Venan Games||Yes||2011/12/01|
|08.||Clash Of the Dragons||Kongregate, Web||5th Planet Games||No||2011/12||2014/10/30|
|09.||BloodRealm||Kongregate, Facebook, Steam, iOS, Android & Web||RedPoint Labs & Making Fun, Inc.||Yes||2012/04||2014/09/11||Date is for beta release|
|10.||Rise of the Warriors||iOS||The Monkey Twins Studios||Yes||2012/06/28||2013|
|11.||Age of Chaos||iOS||LVL6||No||2012/08/05||2013|
|12.||My Singing Monsters||Android, iOS & Web||Big Blue Bubble||Yes||2012/09/04||2013/02|
|13.||Wrath of Olympus||iOS||Chocobotsgames, mekalabo||No||2012/12/07||2014|
|14.||Reign of Conquerors||iOS & Android||Minoraxis||Yes||2012/12/19||2014||Date is for beta release|
|15.||Invincible Armada||Neowiz Games||No||2012/12/20||2014/02/28|
|16.||Kings of the Realm||Web, iOS & Android||DigitGame Studios||Yes||2013/04/12||2016/01/27||Kabam published mobile versions of the game on September 2, 2014 but the different versions were never cross-platform compatible. The mobile versions stopped working by January 2015 and Kabam forum support ended on February 9, 2015.|
|17.||Puzzle Trooper||iOS & Android||gumi||Yes||2013/06/21||2014/04/30||Date is for beta release|
|18.||Moonrise||Steam, iOS||Undead Labs, Kabam||No||2014/12/03||2015/12/31||After limited releases in Canada, Denmark and Sweden, a beta was launched on Steam in early March with Early Access on May 27 before Jeff Strain, founder of Undead Labs, announced the game's closure. Android and iOS were the original planned platforms for the worldwide release, but the Android version was never released as the game closed while in beta.|
|19.||Slot Galaxy||Galaxy Star Entertainment||Yes||2012/03/23||2013|
|20.||Slots Tycoon||iOS||Zipline Games||Yes||2012/05/23||2013|
|21.||Slot Galaxy HD Slot Machines||Android||Tap Slots||Yes||2012/12/16||2013|
|22.||Texas Hold'em Poker||Web||Yes||?||2013|
|23.||Galaxy Online 2||facebook, Web||I Got Games||Yes||2010||2016/02/16|
|24.||Wings of Destiny||facebook, Web||I Got Games||Yes||2012/09/13||2016/02/16|
|25.||Call of Gods||Kongregate, Web||Biyojoy Network Technology||Yes||2010||2016/02/16|
|26.||Glory of Gods||Kongregate, Web||Biyojoy Network Technology||Yes||2012/12/03||2014/02/28|
|27.||Pirates: Tides of Fortune||Web||Plarium||Yes||2012/01/12|
|28.||Stormfall: Age of War||facebook, Web||Plarium||Yes||2012/11/01|
|29.||Crystal Saga||Kongregate, Web||Reality Squared Games||Yes||2011/08||2016/02/12||All players who filed a ticket to reality squared games got their characters transferred to r2games.com under one of their servers|
|30.||Yitien||Web||Reality Squared Games||Yes||2013/04/09||2016/02/12||Date is for beta release|
|31.||Demon Slayer (Wartune)||facebook, Web||Reality Squared Games||Yes||2012/08/13|
|32.||Wartune||facebook, Web||Reality Squared Games||Yes||2012/08/13||Yahoo! version of the game was shut down on March 31, 2014 and progress transfer to other versions of the game was not possible.|
Notes: Release date denotes when a game is first available to play, including closed and open beta releases. For games that are developed by other studios and distributed by Kabam, the shutdown date is when Kabam discontinued their support of the games. Those games may still be distributed by other publishers, or available to play on servers hosted by companies other than Kabam.
- "Playdom Reaches Out to Strategy Gamers with Verdonia". Inside Social Games. June 16, 2010.
- Kevin Chou (2015-04-20). "Fewer, Bigger, Bolder: Kabam is Singularly Focused on AAA Mobile Games". Kabam. Retrieved 2015-06-14.
- "Sports fantasty social startup Watercooler raises $5.5M". San Jose Business Journal. October 26, 2009.
- "Watercooler raises $5.5M to expand social fantasy sports game business". VentureBeat. October 25, 2009.
- "Kingdoms of Camelot - Web Games - IGN". Ca.ign.com. 2010-04-16. Retrieved 2015-06-12.
- Chris Morrison (2010-08-03). "Watercooler Changes Its Name to Kabam, Focuses in on Deeper Social Games | SocialTimes". Adweek.com. Retrieved 2015-06-12.
- "Wayne Chan". CrunchBase. August 15, 2013.
- "Kabam Weighs IPO as Game Maker Expands Beyond Facebook". Bloomberg. September 19, 2012.
- "Free-To-Play Games Company Kabam Buys Phoenix Age As It Pushes For $650M In 2014 Sales". TechCrunch. 2014-03-10. Retrieved 2014-04-18.
- "Former EA VP Aaron Loeb joins free-to-play mobile company Kabam". Retrieved 2 January 2017.
- "Kabam pulls the plug". 2014-05-22. Retrieved 2017-01-02.
- "Alibaba pours $120M into Kabam to challenge Tencent". Retrieved 1 August 2014.
- Dean Takahashi (2015-08-21). "Party foul: Gameof War studio sues rival Kabam after friendly soirée banter got out of ontrol". VentureBeat. Retrieved 2016-03-11.
- Dean Takahashi (2015-09-10). "Machine Zone and Kabam politely resolve their trade secret lawsuit". VentureBeat. Retrieved 2016-03-11.
- Dean Takahashi (2015-09-11). "Ex-EA exec leaves Kabam as two others get promotions". VentureBeat. Retrieved 2016-03-11.
- Ric Cowley (2016-01-08). "Kabam continues to narrow focus, offloading old mobile titles to Gaea Mobile". Pocket Gamer. Retrieved 2016-03-11.
- Dean Takahashi (2016-02-22). "Kabam lays off 8% as it focuses on massively multiplayer mobile hits like Marvel: Contest of Champions". VentureBeat. Retrieved 2016-03-11.
- "Kabam Acquires WonderHill, Wants To Become The Blizzard Of Social Games". Oct 22, 2010.
- "Kabam buys Battle Punks social game creator Gravity Bear". VentureBeat. March 29, 2012.
- "Kabam acquires Realm of the Mad God developer". Gamasutra. June 19, 2012.
- "Kabam acquires game studio Fearless Studios led by ex-Star Wars game developers". VentureBeat. January 27, 2012.
- "Kabam acquires Balanced Worlds game studio".
- "Kabam Expands Global Studios, Acquires Exploding Barrel Games".
- "Kabam expands into role-playing games with acquisition of Castle Age maker".
- "Kabam acquires two mobile game studios as it gathers more top talent".
- "Kabam acquires Dawn of Steel studio Superweapon".
- "Welcome to RockYou!". Community.kabam.com. 2015-04-08. Retrieved 2015-06-14.
- "Sweet World: Tips & Cheats: Sweet World is playable until Jan 31 then it is going off line". Gamersunite.coolchaser.com. 2011-01-18. Retrieved 2015-06-12.
- "Save Green Spot - About". Facebook. 2010-12-02. Retrieved 2015-06-12.
- Huyen Trinh Thu (2010-12-01). "Game online free 34: Kabam closing up shop on Tattoo City on December 1". Gamesonlinefree34.blogspot.ca. Retrieved 2015-06-12.
- "Game Shutdown: DDTank2". Community.kabam.com. 2015-02-16. Retrieved 2015-06-14.
- "Hero Force Closing Down April 29". Community.kabam.com. 2011-03-31. Retrieved 2015-06-12.
- "Global Warfare Closure". Community.kabam.com. 2012-11-01. Retrieved 2015-06-12.
- "Samurai Dynasty Is Closed". Community.kabam.com. 2012-11-15. Retrieved 2015-06-14.
- Mike Thompson (2013-01-04). "Kabam shutting down Thirst of Night at the end of this month | SocialTimes". Adweek.com. Retrieved 2015-06-12.
- "Final Eden Closure". Community.kabam.com. 2012-10-25. Retrieved 2015-06-12.
- "Mobile Command Is Closing". Community.kabam.com. 2012-09-24. Retrieved 2015-06-12.
- "Kabam Announced Server Shutdown for Trojan War". Dotmmo.com. 2012-10-30. Retrieved 2015-06-12.
- "Battle Shard is Closing". Community.kabam.com. 2012-12-04. Retrieved 2015-06-12.
- "Edgeworld Mobile Closure FAQ". Community.kabam.com. 2013-06-24. Retrieved 2015-06-12.
- "Dark District Shutdown Announcement and FAQ [English]". Community.kabam.com. 2014-07-14. Retrieved 2015-06-12.
- "Fast & Furious 6: The Game - May 2015 Update". Community.kabam.com. 2015-05-18. Retrieved 2015-06-12.
- "Job losses as Kabam closes Imperium: Galactic War". GamesIndustry.biz. 2013-10-04. Retrieved 2015-06-12.
- "On Nov. 11, 2013 all Order of Elements servers will be shutting down permanently". Community.kabam.com. 2013-10-14. Retrieved 2015-06-12.
- "Blood Crown: Shutdown FAQ". Community.kabam.com. 2014-07-25. Retrieved 2015-06-12.
- "Decommissioned Games". community.kabam.com. 2016-01-25. Retrieved 2016-01-25.
- "Raven March". community.kabam.com. 2015-06-01. Retrieved 2015-06-14.
- "Blades of Excalibur". Community.kabam.com. 2015-02-20. Retrieved 2015-06-12.
- "Metal Skies - Game Closure on March 6th, 2015". Community.kabam.com. 2015-02-16. Retrieved 2015-06-12.
- "Creature Academy Shut Down FAQ". Community.kabam.com. 2015-03-09. Retrieved 2015-06-12.
- "Important Marvel Announcement". Community.kabam.com. 2015-11-30. Retrieved 2016-03-11.
- "MARVEL United Android Beta". Community.kabam.com. 2015-09-23. Retrieved 2016-03-11.
- "Game Shutdown: Dungeon Overlord, Ministry of War, Glory of Gods, Invincible Armada". Community.kabam.com. 2014-02-07. Retrieved 2015-06-12.
- "Nadirim". Nadirim.com. 2013-06-30. Retrieved 2015-06-12.
- "Castlot and Kings of the Realm Decommissioned". community.kabam.com. 2016-01-22. Retrieved 2016-01-25.
- "Clash of the Dragons Farewell Notice". Dawnofthedragons.com. Retrieved 2015-06-12.
- "Attention kabam users!". bloodrealm.com. 2014-09-02. Retrieved 2016-03-11.
- "[2/5] URGENT - Kings of the Realm - Forum Closure on 2/9/15". Community.kabam.com. 2015-02-05. Retrieved 2015-06-14.
- Jeff Strain (2015-08-28). "The Sun Sets on Moonrise". Undead Labs. Retrieved 2016-03-11.
- "Limited Release - Canada!". forums.undeadlabs.com. 2014-12-03. Retrieved 2016-03-11.
- "Limited Release - Denmark and Sweden!". forums.undeadlabs.com. 2014-12-03. Retrieved 2016-03-11.
- "Moonrise...Coming to Steam". forums.undeadlabs.com. 2015-03-04. Retrieved 2016-03-11.
- "Now Available on Steam Early Access - Moonrise". Valve. 2015-05-27. Retrieved 2016-03-11.
- "Yitien and Crystal Saga Sunset Decommissioned". community.kabam.com. 2016-01-27. Retrieved 2016-02-12.
- "Wartune Yahoo! Shutdown". Community.kabam.com. 2014-03-07. Retrieved 2015-06-14.